The Global strategy talks about feeding in exceptionally difficult. it includes emergency situations,…
The Global strategy talks about feeding in exceptionally difficult. it includes emergency situations, malnourished children, low-birth-weight babies, infants of HIV-infected mothers and orphans.
GLOBAL STRATEGY FOR INFANT AND YOUNG CHILD FEEDING
The aim of the Global Strategy is to improve-through optimal feeding-the nutritional status, growth and development, health, and thus the survival of infants and young children.
It supports exclusive breath feeding for 6 months, with timely, adequate, safe and appropriate complementary feeding, while continuing breast feeding for two years and beyond. It also supports maternal nutrition, and social and community support .
Many children are not fed in the recommended way. Many mothers who initiate breast feeding satisfactorily, often start complementary feeds or stop breastfeeding within a few weeks of delivery.
In addition, many children, even those who have grown well for the first six months of life, do not receive adequate complementary feeds.
More than one-third of under 5 children are malnourished whether stunted, wasted, or deficient in vitamin A, iron or other micronutrients and malnutrition contribution to more than half of the 10.6million deaths each year among young children in developing countries.
EXCLUSIVE BREAST FEEDING
Exclusive breast feeding means giving a baby only breast milk, and no other liquids or solids, not even water. Drops or syrups consisting of vitamins, mineral supplements or medicines are permitted.
ADVANTAGES OF BREAST FEEDING
Breast milk: Perfect nutrient. Easily digested; efficiently used . Protects against infection
Breast feeding: Helps bonding and development. Helps delay a new pregnancy. Protects mothers’ health. Cost less than artificial feeding
Breast feeding protects babies against diarrhea and respiratory illness and also ear infections, meningitis and urinary tract infections.
Hence a baby should not be separated from his/her mother when she has an infection, because her breast milk protects the baby against infection.
Antibody rich- protects against allergy and infection
Many white cells- protects against infection
Purgative- clears meconium -helps to prevent jaundice
Growth factors- helps intestine to mature- prevents allergy, intolerance rich in vitamin A- reduces severity of infection.
FEEDING LOW BIRTH BABIES
- Babies born between 32 and 34weeks with weight above 1.5kg can suck directly from the breast, and also from the cup if the need arises.
- From 30-32weeks, feeding from the baby’s cup or use of baby’s cup and spoon is preferred, with expressed breast milk.
- Put babay to breast when he has had enough, to establish sucking reflex.
- Formular diets and heamatinics
POSSIBLE SIGNS THAT A BABY IS NOT GETTING ENOUGH BREAST MILK
- Baby not satisfied after breastfeeds
- Baby cries often
- Very frequent breastfeeds
- Very long breastfeeds
- Baby refuses to breastfeed
- Baby has hard, dry, or green stool
- Baby has infrequent small stools
- No milk comes out when mother expresses
- Breasts did not enlarge (during pregnancy)
- Milk did not ‘come in’ (after delivery)
- After 6months of age, all babies require other food to complement breast milk- we call these complementary foods. When complementary foods are introduce breastfeeding should still continue for up to two years of age or beyond.
- Complementary food should be:
timely- meaning that they are introduced when the need for energy and nutrients exceeds what can be provided through exclusive and frequent breastfeeding.
adequate-meaning that they provide sufficient energy, protein and micronutrients to meet a growing child’s nutritional needs.
safe-meaning that they are hygienically store and prepared and fed with clean hands using clean utensils and not bottle and teat.
properly fed-meaning that they are given consistent with a child’s signals hunger and that meal frequent and feeding methods are suitable for the child’s age.
Fluids that are good for young children: safe, clean water, milk, pure fruit juices(note that too much fruit juice may cause diarrhea and may reduce the child’s appetite for food).
Fluids that are not recommended for young children:
*Drinks that contain a lot of sugar (this may actually make the child thirstier as his body has to deal with the extra sugar). *Fizzy drinks (soda) and fruit drinks with added sugar are not suitable for young children. *Teas and coffee reduce the iron that is absorbed from foods and are not recommended for children.
Non-breastfed children aged 6-24 months need approximately 2-3 cups of water per day in a temperature climate and 4-6 cups of safe water per day in a hot climate.
Complementary foods; our local diet
the staple may be:
- cereals, such as rice, wheat, maize/corn, oats, or millet.
- starchy roots such as cassava, yam, or potato.
- starchy fruits such as plantain or green banana.
- others: oil, sugar and salt.
- the young child needs iron to make new blood, to assist in growth and development, and to help the body fight infections. Source: fish, meat, eggs
- vitamin C rich food: tomato, guava, mango, pineapple, and pawpaw, as well as orange, lemon, and other citrus fruits.
- foods from animals, including the flesh (meat) and organs/offal such as liver and heart, as well as milk, yoghurt, local cheese (wara) and eggs are rich sources of many nutrients.
- protein: milk, egg, cheese, yoghurt.
- vitamin A: dark green leafy vegetables, milk fat, egg yolk.
- zinc: animal sources (meat, liver)
- calcium: dairy products, green vegetables, pounded dried fish.
- legumes or pulses such as beans and peas, as well as nuts and seeds, are good sources of protein. Legumes are a source of iron as well.
- vitamin A, which is needed for health eyes and skin and to help the body fight infections.
- sources: dark-green leaves and orang- coloured vegetables and fruits (for example, spinach, pumpkin, carrots, and orange flesh sweet potato), milk and foods made from milk such as butter, local cheese, and yoghurt. Egg yolks, margarine, dried milk powder, yoghurt, and other foods, fortified with vitamin A.
- formula milks are made from a variety of products, including animal milks, soya beans, and vegetable oil.
Although they have been adjusted so that they are more like human milk, they are still far from perfect for babies.
Human milk contains more whey proteins. The whey proteins contain anti-infective proteins which help to protect a baby against infection.
The animal milk contains more protein than human milk. It is difficult for a baby’s immature kidneys to excrete the extra waste from the protein in animal milk.
Human milk also contains essential fatty acids that are needed for a baby’s growing brain and eyes, and for healthy blood vessels. These fatty acids are not present in animal milks, but may have been added to formula milk.
THERE IS NOTHING LIKE BREAST MILK